H.E. Sylvie Lucas, Permanent Representative of Luxemburg to the UN.
Luxemburg relinquished the position as Chair of the
Guinea Configuration in August, 2016. PBC and the government of
Guinea are currently reviewing their mutual engagement.
The Republic of Guinea has faced many challenges concerning its economic and political instability. After its independence from France in 1958, its first president Ahmed Sékou Touré ruled for 24 years with anti-democratic tendencies. After his death, General Lansana Conté was elected president in elections that were accused of being rigged, and stayed in power until his death on 23 September 2008. Only a day later, Junta leader Moussa Dadis Camara proclaimed himself president and head of the New Council for Democracy and Development during a two year transition, after which democratic elections would be held. Despite his promise that no member of the National Council for Development and Democracy would be a presidential candidate, Camara repudiated this promise.
On 28 September 2009, Guineans protested against the candidacy of Camara. Soldiers violently attacked the protesters, leaving 150 killed and more than 1,000 injured. Representatives of Guinean political parties and civil society called for the departure of the junta. After Camara was injured in an assassination attempt, he agreed to allow interim military leader Sékouba Konaté to take his place. Konaté called for the opposition party to elect a prime minister. Jean-Marie Doré took office as the prime minister with the goal of forming a new government and overseeing a transition to civilian rule. On 16 November 2010, Alpha Condé of the opposition party Rally of the Guinean People (RGP) was declared the winner of Guinea's first free and fair, yet troubled, presidential elections. On 18 July 2011, President Condé's residence was attacked, highlighting the instability of the new democracy. Groups such as International Crisis Group expressed concerns about the risk of inter-communal tensions igniting violence that may pave the way for the return of military rule. The success of the 2015 democratic elections and the reelection of President Alpha Condé has been generally applauded as a significant step towards political stability. The decision to hold legislative and community elections after the presidential ones, however, has stirred unrest amongst the opposition. Furthermore, Condé's opponent Diallo acted as representative of the country's major ethnic group (Peuhl majority); consequently, Condé's victory was not unilaterally accepted. One of the current government's main challenges also continues to be maintaining peace between Guinea's ethnic groups.
The PBC at Work
Guinea is the sixth country to be placed on the Peacebuilding Commission's agenda, following Liberia. The Republic of Guinea is a relatively special case in the PBC because the country did not experience a civil war before its implementation, unlike the other countries. However, the country has continuously experienced human right violations and border conflicts withSierra Leone and Liberia, both Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) countries, which have created a volatile political sphere in the region.
On 21 October 2011, the Government of Guinea requested that the country be included in PBC's agenda and on 23 February 2011, Guinea was formally accepted. Ambassador Sylvie Lucas, the Permanent Representative ofLuxembourg to the United Nations, is the assigned chairperson of the Guineaconfiguration. As Chairperson, H.E. Lucas has led a number of trips to Guinea in order to establish strategies and oversee ongoing projects in coordination with the local government. Most of these strategies and project were established according to a Statement of Mutual Commitments issued in 2012. An initial draft of the statement of mutual commitments was shared with the government of Guinea following these meetings, on 23 June 2011 and later on 1 July 2011 with the PBC's Guinea configuration members.
The final Statement of Mutual Commitments focuses on the principles of (1) national ownership and leadership, (2) partnership in support of national efforts in peacebuilding and (3) mutual accountability for results.
The Statement also declares the commitment of the Government of Guinea and its partners to include regional organizations in their approach to addressing national challenges. In establishing lasting peace, national reconciliation efforts will be focused on combating impunity.
PBC is currently reviewing its engagement with Guinea.
The Permanent Representation of Luxemburg to the UN relinquished the position as Chair of the Guinea Configuration in August, 2016. PBC and the government of Guinea are currently reviewing their mutual engagement.